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APPLICATIONS GUIDE

A LIST OF MATERIALS MOST COMMONLY USED IN EACH APPLICATION




This document features materials for each application. It is critical that specifiers and clients understand how a material will perform in the application prior to selecting a material. Some clients love the aged, or patina, effect that natural stone takes on. Others prefer materials that require less maintenance and will remain more pristine..

COMMERCIAL FLOORING

CONSIDERATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL FLOORING APPLICATIONS

Commercial flooring applications include shopping malls, retail, hospitality, hospitals, institutional environments, retail, office spaces and reception areas. Things
 to consider:

  • ABRASION RESISTANCE

    Materials with a High Abrasion Resistance rating are less likely to scratch than marble, limestone, onyx, slate, etc. Materials with a Low Abrasion Resistance rating
will scratch with exposure to sand and other abrasives. The finish will patina or dull over time as a result of this scratching.
  • ABSORPTION

    Materials with a Minimally Absorbent rating (i.e. Porcelain Tile, some Engineered Stone) are virtually non-porous. No sealer is required, they are less likely to stain, and they are typically easier to maintain. Materials with a Moderately Absorbent Rating are resistant to staining due to low porosity, but not impervious. Materials with Highly Absorbent rating are prone to staining.
  • ACID SENSITIVITY

    Acidic cleaners and other acid polutants will etch materials that contain calcium or magnesium carbonate (i.e. marble, limestone and travertine). Materials rated as Moderately Sensitive or Highly Sensitive will patina more rapidly than materials rated as Minimally Sensitive.
  • TRAFFIC

    Natural stones rated for Heavy Commercial Traffic will patina, but have a history of wearing well over time. These materials typically require less care and maintenance than materials rated for Moderate, Light or Residential Traffic.

MATERIAL ABR.RESISTANCE ABSORPTION ACID SENSITIVITY TRAFFIC
Basalt Medium High Minimal Heavy Commercial
Sandstone Medium High Minimal Heavy Commercial
Limestone Low Moderate to High High Medium Heavy Commercial
Slate Low Moderate High Heavy Commercial
Quartzite High Moderate Minimal Heavy Commercial
Travertine Low High High Heavy Commercial
Marble low Moderate High to Moderate Heavy Commercial

EXTERIOR APPLICATIONS

CONSIDERATIONS FOR EXTERIOR APPLICATIONS

Exterior applications refer to the exterior horizontal or vertical (cladding) surfaces. Things to consider:

  • ABSORPTION

    Materials with either very high or very low absorption
will perform better in exterior applications. For materials rated as Highly Absorbent, water will evaporate more easily, so the material will be less likely to be impacted by freeze-thaw cycles. For Highly Absorbent materials use a granite base to prevent wicking at grade. Materials rated as Minimally Absorbent will simply remain impermeable to water and its effects.
  • ACID SENSITIVITY

    Acid rain and other acid polutants will etch materials that contain calcium or magnesium carbonate (i.e. marble, limestone and travertine). Materials rated as Moderately Sensitive or Highly Sensitive will patina more rapidly than materials rated as Minimally Sensitive. All materials used in exterior applications will patina.
  • FREEZE / THAW

    Materials rated as suitable for Exterior Applications (All or Vertical Only) have minimal cracking or spalling in repeat freeze-thaw cycles.
  • TRAFFIC

    Natural stones rated for Heavy Commercial Traffic will patina, but have a history of wearing well over time. These materials typically require less care and maintenance
than materials rated for Moderate, Light or Residential Traffic.

MATERIAL ABSORPTION ACID SENSITIVITY FREEZE / THAW TRAFFIC
Basalt High Minimal All Exteriors Heavy Commercial
Sandstone High Minimal All Exteriors Heavy Commercial
Limestone Moderate to High High All Exteriors Medium Heavy Commercial
Slate Moderate High All Exteriors Heavy Commercial
Quartzite Modarate Minimal All Exteriors Heavy Commercial
Travertine Moderate Moderate All Exteriors Heavy Commercial
Marble Modarate Moderate All Exteriors Heavy Commercial

KITCHEN COUNTERTOPS

CONSIDERATIONS FOR KITCHEN COUNTERTOPS

Kitchen countertop applications include any areas where food and drinks are prepared or served, such as kitchen countertops, islands, bar tops and dining tables. Things to consider:

  • ABRASION RESISTANCE

    Materials with a High Abrasion Resistance rating are less likely to scratch than marble, limestone, onyx, slate, etc. Materials with a Low Abrasion Resistance rating will scratch. The finish will patina or dull over time as a result of this scratching. Always use a cutting board for countertop applications.
  • ABSORPTION

    Materials with a Minimally Absorbent rating are virtually non-porous. No sealer is required, they are less likely to stain, and they are typically easier to maintain. Materials with a Moderately Absorbent rating are resistant to staining due to low porosity, but not impervious. Materials with highly absorbent rating are prone to staining. Always seal natural stone prior to use.
  • ACID SENSITIVITY

    Acidic foods or liquids (i.e. lemons or tomatoes) will acid etch materials
that contain calcium or magnesium carbonate. Materials rated as Minimally Sensitive are not sensitive to acids and will not acid etch. Materials rated as Moderately Sensitive will patina over time. Materials rated as Highly Sensitive should not be used on kitchen countertop applications.

MATERIAL ABRASION RESISTANCE ABSORPTION ACID SENSITIVITY
Basalt Medium High Minimal
Sandstone Low Moderate Moderate
Slate Low Moderate Minimal
Quartzite High Moderate Minimal

WET ARES

CONSIDERATIONS FOR WET AREAS

Wet areas refer to tub enclosures, showers, bathroom floors and interior swimming pools. Things to consider:

  • ABSORPTION

    Materials with a Minimally Absorbent rating are virtually non-porous. No sealer is required, they are less likely to stain, and they are typically easier to maintain. Materials with a moderately absorbent rating are resistant to staining due to low porosity, but not impervious. Materials with highly absorbent rating are prone to staining. Always seal natural stone prior to use.
  • ACID SENSITIVITY

    Acidic cleaners and other acid polutants will etch materials that contain calcium or magnesium carbonate (i.e. marble, limestone and travertine). Materials rated as Moderately Sensitive or Highly Sensitive will patina more rapidly than materials rated as Minimally Sensitive.

MATERIAL ABRASION RESISTANCE ACID SENSITIVITY
Basalt High Minimal
Marble High Moderate High Moderate
Limestone Moderate High
Slate Moderate High
Quartzite Minimal Minimal
Travertine High High
stonesource.com, informations based on Marble Institute of America.