APPLICATIONS GUIDE

LISTS THE MATERIALS MOST COMMONLY USED IN EACH APPLICATION

This document features materials for each application. It is critical that specifiers and clients understand how a material will perform in the application prior to selecting a material. Some clients love the aged, or patina, effect that natural stone takes on. Others prefer materials that require less maintenance and will remain more pristine.

This document covers:

CONSIDERATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL FLOORING ΑPPLICATIONS
Commercial flooring applications include shopping malls, retail, hospitality, hospitals, institutional environments, retail, hospitality, office spaces and reception areas.

CONSIDERATIONS FOR EXTERIOR APPLICATIONS
Exterior applications refers to the exterior horizontal or vertical (cladding) surfaces.

CONSIDERATIONS FOR KITCHEN COUNTERTOPS
Kitchen countertop applications include any areas where food and drinks are prepared or served, such as kitchen countertops, islands, bar tops and dining tables.

CONSIDERATIONS FOR WET AREAS
Wet areas refers to tub enclosures, showers, bathroom floors and interior swimming pools.

Applications Guide: Commercial Flooring

CONSIDERATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL FLOORING APPLICATIONS

Commercial flooring applications include shopping malls, retail, hospitality, hospitals, institutional environments, retail, hospitality, office spaces and reception areas. Things
to consider:

ABRASION RESISTANCE
Materials with a High Abrasion Resistance rating are less likely to scratch than marble, limestone, onyx, slate, etc. Materials with a Low Abrasion Resistance rating
will scratch with exposure to sand and other abrasives. The finish will patina or dull over time as a result of this scratching.

ABSORPTION
Materials with a Minimally Absorbent rating (i.e. Porcelain Tile, some Engineered Stone) are virtually non-porous. No sealer is required, they are less likely to stain, and they are typically easier to maintain. Materials with a Moderately Absorbent Rating are resistant to staining due to low porosity, but not impervious. Materials with Highly Absorbent rating are prone to staining.

ACID SENSITIVITY
Acidic cleaners and other acid polutants will etch materials that contain calcium or magnesium carbonate (i.e. marble, limestone and travertine). Materials rated as Moderately Sensitive or Highly Sensitive will patina more rapidly than materials rated as Minimally Sensitive.

TRAFFIC
Natural stones rated for Heavy Commercial Traffic will patina, but have a history of wearing well over time. These materials typically require less care and maintenance than materials rated for Moderate, Light or Residential Traffic.

MATERIALS FOR commercial flooringABRASION RESISTANCEABSORPTIONACID SENSITIVITYTRAFFIC
BasaltmediumHighminimalHeavy Commercial
SandstonemediumhighminimalHeavy Commercial
Limestonelowmoderate to highhighheavy to medium commercial
Slatelow ModeratehighHeavy Commercial
QuartzitehighModerateminimalHeavy Commercial
TravertineLowhighhighHeavy Commercial
MarblelowModeratehigh to moderateHeavy Commercial

Applications Guide: Exterior Applications

CONSIDERATIONS FOR EXTERIOR APPLICATIONS

Exterior applications refers to the exterior horizontal or vertical (cladding) surfaces of a building. Things to consider:

ABSORPTION
Materials with either very high or very low absorption
will perform better in exterior applications. For materials rated as Highly Absorbent, water will evaporate more easily, so the material will be less likely to be impacted by freeze-thaw cycles. For Highly Absorbent materials use a granite base to prevent wicking at grade. Materials rated as Minimally Absorbent will simply remain impermeable to water and its effects.

ACID SENSITIVITY
Acid rain and other acid polutants will etch materials that contain calcium or magnesium carbonate (i.e. marble, limestone and travertine). Materials rated as Moderately Sensitive or Highly Sensitive will patina more rapidly than materials rated as Minimally Sensitive. All materials used in exterior applications will patina.

• FREEZE / THAW
Materials rated as suitable for Exterior Applications (All or Vertical Only) have minimal cracking or spalling in repeat freeze-thaw cycles.

• TRAFFIC
Natural stones rated for Heavy Commercial Traffic will patina, but have a history of wearing well over time. These materials typically require less care and maintenance
than materials rated for Moderate, Light or Residential Traffic.

For ratings descriptions refer to Technical Performance Specs PDF.

MATERIALS FOR EXTERIOR APPLICATIONS
MATERIALABSORPTIONACID SENSITIVITYFREEZE/THAWTRAFFIC
BasaltHighMinimalAll ExteriorsHeavy Commercial
sandstoneHighMinimalAll ExteriorsHeavy Commercial
LimestoneModerate to HighHighAll ExteriorsMedium to Heavy Commercial
SlateModerateHighAll ExteriorsHeavy Commercial
QuartziteModerateMinimalAll ExteriorsHeavy Commercial
TravertineModerateModerateAll ExteriorsMedium Commercial
MarbleModerateModerateAll ExteriorsHeavy Commercial

Applications Guide: kitchen countertops

CONSIDERATIONS FOR KITCHEN COUNTERTOPS

Kitchen countertop applications include any areas where food and drinks are prepared or served, such as kitchen countertops, islands, bar tops and dining tables. Things to consider:

ABRASION RESISTANCE
Materials with a High Abrasion Resistance rating are less likely to scratch than marble, limestone, onyx, slate, etc. Materials with a Low Abrasion Resistance rating will scratch. The finish will patina or dull over time as a result of this scratching. Always use a cutting board for countertop applications.

ABSORPTION
Materials with a Minimally Absorbent rating are virtually non-porous. No
sealer is required, they are less likely to stain, and they are typically easier to maintain. Materials with a Moderately Absorbent rating are resistant to staining due to low porosity, but not impervious. Materials with highly absorbent rating are prone to staining. Always seal natural stone prior to use.

ACID SENSITIVITY
Acidic foods or liquids (i.e. lemons or tomatoes) will acid etch materials
that contain calcium or magnesium carbonate. Materials rated as Minimally Sensitive are not sensitive to acids and will not acid etch. Materials rated as Moderately Sensitive will patina over time. Materials rated as Highly Sensitive should not be used on kitchen countertop applications.

MATERIALS FOR KITCHEN COUNTERTOPS
MATERIALABRASION RESISTANCEABSORPTIONACID SENSITIVITY
BasaltMediumHighMinimal
MarbleLowModerateModerate
Limestone
SlateLowModerateMinimal
QuartziteHighModerateMinimal
Travertine

Applications Guide: Wet Areas

CONSIDERATIONS FOR Wet areas

Wet areas refers to tub enclosures, showers, bathroom floors and interior swimming pools. Things to consider:

ABSORPTION
Materials with a Minimally Absorbent rating are virtually non-porous. No sealer is required, they are less likely to stain, and they are typically easier to maintain. Materials with a moderately absorbent rating are resistant to staining due to low porosity, but not impervious. Materials with highly absorbent rating are prone to staining. Always seal natural stone prior to use.

• ACID SENSITIVITY
Acidic cleaners and other acid polutants will etch materials that contain
calcium or magnesium carbonate (i.e. marble, limestone and travertine). Materials rated as Moderately Sensitive or Highly Sensitive will patina more rapidly than materials rated as Minimally Sensitive.

MATERIALS FOR WET AREAS
MATERIALABSORPTIONACID SENSITIVITY
BasaltHighMinimal
MarbleHigh-ModerateHigh-Moderate
LimestoneModerateHigh
SlateModerateHigh
QuartziteMinimalMinimal
TravertineHighHigh

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